October 30, 2009

how to plant / grow orchids

 how to plant / grow orchids
  

 This is my experiance when i plant an orchid and i will share at this my buy cheap flowers online blog.

Naturally orchids (Family Orchidaceae) live epiphytes on tree branches and other plants, but the growth of orchids can be grown in pots filled with certain media. There are several factors that affect plant growth, such as environmental factors, such as sunlight, humidity and temperature as well as maintenance: fertilizing, watering and control of quarantine pests.

In general, orchids are cultivated require temperature 28 + 2 ° C with a minimum temperature of 15 ° C. Orchids are generally more resistant to heat than the orchid pot. But high temperatures can cause dehydration which can inhibit plant growth.

Relative humidity (RH) needed for orchids ranged between 60-85%. The function of high humidity for the plants among others, to avoid too much evaporation. At night the humidity is maintained so as not too high, because it can cause root rot on young shoots. Therefore, cultivated in pots that media should not too wet. While a very low humidity during the day can be overcome by providing a spray mist (mist) around the planting with the help of sprayer.

Based on growth patterns, orchid plants are divided into two types namely, simpodial and monopodial. Simpodial types of orchids are orchids that do not have the main stems, flowers out of the end of the stem and blossom again from plants growing child. Except in the orchid species Dendrobium sp. who can issue the new flower on the sides of the trunk. Examples of types of orchids, among others simpodial: Dendrobium sp., Cattleya sp., Oncidium sp. and Cymbidium sp. Simpodial types of orchids are epiphytes generally.

Orchid monopodial type is characterized by orchids growing point located at the end of the stem, the plant straight up on one stem. (cheap) Flowers out of the trunk between the two leaves armpit. Examples of types of monopodial orchids are: Vanda sp., Arachnis sp., Renanthera sp., Phalaenopsis sp., And Aranthera sp.

Habitat orchid plants can be divided into 4 groups as follows:
Orchid epiphytes, the orchids that grow on tree riding without harming its host plants and require shade from sunlight, such as Cattleya sp. requiring light +40%, Dendrobium sp. 50-60%, Phalaenopsis sp. + 30%, and Oncidium sp. 60 to 75%.
Terrestrial orchids, the orchid that grows in the soil and require direct sunlight, for example Aranthera sp., Renanthera sp., Vanda sp. and Arachnis sp.
Terrestrial orchid plants need sunlight from 70 to 100%, with afternoon temperatures ranging from 19 - 380C, and at night 18-210C. While for orchid species Vanda sp. broad-leaf require a little shade.
Litofit orchids, the orchid that grows on rocks, and are resistant to full sunlight, such as Dendrobium phalaenopsis.
Saprofit orchids, the orchids that grow on media containing humus or dry leaves, and require little sunlight, such as Goodyera sp.

Crosses

Crosses aimed to obtain new varieties with color and shapes that are attractive, compact crown of flowers and a thick texture that can be long lasting as cut flowers, the petals much and no flowers early autumn due to genetic abnormalities, and high flower production. Therefore, to obtain the expected results, should and ought to have controlled the crossing guidelines, among others:
Crossing should be done on the morning after watering. Selected flowers fresh or after the full opening.
Selected as female parent who has a strong interest, not wither or fall quickly.
Knowing the properties of both parent plants to be crossed, in order to give the expected results, such as the nature of dominance that would look or appear in derivatives such as: color, shape, and others.
Interest not affected OPT especially in pollen and stigma.
Everyone got a good new varieties, should be listed in the "Royal Horticultural Society" in London, by completing the registration form orchid hybrids with several other requirements.

The steps undertaken in conducting pollination (pollination) is as follows:
Provide a sheet of white paper and a small stick or toothpick or something clean.
Cap polinia found on the end column was opened, which will look at it yellow polinia.
Tip stick / toothpick soaked with a liquid that is in a white hole or with a little water.
Polinia taken with caution. Hold the white paper as a vessel under the flower to avoid when falling at the time polinia taken.
Polinia then inserted into the stigma (the stigma).
Label attached to the stem bud (pedicel) that contains notes of interest on the date of pollination and the flower's name taken polinianya.

A few days later pollinated flowers will have wilted. If pollination is successful, and if there is no quarantine pests, the fruit will continue to develop into fruit. Orchid fruit is mature after three months to six months or more. Ripe fruit will split with characterized the fruit color changes from green to yellowish green.

In selecting seeds that will disemaikan orchid in a bottle should be noted as follows:
Seeds whitish color and empty is a bad seed.
The good seed is full of rounded, yellow or brown

Seedling

Duplication of orchid plants are generally done in two ways namely, conventional and with in vitro culture methods. Propagation of plants that are conventionally performed as follows:
Vegetative Propagation malalui solution / separation of families like Dendrobium sp., Oncidium sp., Cattleya sp., And Cymbidium sp.; Cutting plants kids out of the trunk such as Dendrobium sp.; Cutting kids out of plants from roots and stems of flowers such as Phalaenopsis sp., which in turn put into the same medium as ferns, mos coconut fiber, charcoal, wood shavings, with a mixture of broken tiles or bricks. Vegetative Propagation of this plant will produce children who have genetic properties similar to its parent. However, conventional vegetative propagation is not practical nor beneficial to plant cut flowers, because the number of chicks that hatched in this way is very limited.
Generative Propagation is by seed. Orchid seed is very small and have no endosperm (food reserves), so that germination in nature is very difficult without the help of a symbiotic fungus in the seeds.

To produce large quantities of flowers and plants required uniforms in quantity as well. Therefore, increased production of orchid flowers on plants can only be achieved with effort an efficient plant propagation. At this time in vitro culture method is one way of starting is widely used in the clone or vegetative propagation orchid plant. In vitro culture was first attempted by Haberlandt in 1902, because of the nature of plants called totipotensi triggered by two German scholars Schwann and Schleiden in 1830.

In vitro culture methods of growing vegetative tissues (eg roots, leaves, stems, buds eye) and generative tissues (such as: ovule, embryo and seed) on artificial media in the form of liquid or solid in aseptic (free of microorganisms).

In generative seed obtained through hybrid seeds are genetically seeds are heterozygous. So that the seeds produced in the nature unstable and diverse. In this way to get the same plant with the parent is very difficult, because the crossing orchids has grown so wide. But in this way will get new varieties.

Ie vegetatively growing vegetative tissues or tissue culture as the root, leaf, stem or bud eye on artificial media in the form of liquid or solid aseptically. With this method can be expected to plant propagation can be done quickly and in large numbers, as well as with its parent.

Planting and Maintenance

Land Preparation

Orchid plants can be planted around the house or yard or in the garden under the shade of a tree or a given paranet or the like with a certain light intensity settings, or in open fields. Therefore orchid plant has a high economic potential, then for certain types can be planted in the greenhouses (green house). In addition to protecting plants from natural disturbances, also will reduce the intensity of attacks OPT.
Growing Media Preparation

A good growing medium must meet several requirements, ie not decaying quickly, not a source of disease, has good aeration, capable of binding water and nutrient substances are good, easy to obtain the desired amount and the relatively cheap price. Until now there has been no media that meets all the requirements for the growth of orchid plants.

For the growth of orchid plants, medium acidity (pH) ranged from good 5-6. Growing media is essential for growth and optimum production rates, so that there is need for an effort to find a suitable growing medium. Growing media that is often used in Indonesia, among others: moss, ferns, wood shavings, bits of wood, coconut fiber, charcoal, and pine bark.

Broken bricks widely used as basic medium pot of orchids, because it can absorb more water when compared with the fractional tiles. Media broken bricks used as the basis for the pot, because it has a drainage capacity and good aeration.

Moss containing 2-3% N elements have long been used for the medium to grow orchids. Media moss has a binding power of good water, and aeration and drainage have good also.

Ferns suitable for orchids because the media has a binding power of water, aeration and good drainage, decaying slowly, and contain nutrient elements required for the growth of orchids.

Easy coconut fibers easily become weak and rotten, so it can be a source of disease, but the water was very well kept and contain nutrient elements required and easily available and cheap price. In the use of coconut fibers as the medium grows, coconut fibers should be selected elderly.

Coconut coir growing media, ferns, and moss is a good growing medium for the growth of Phalaenopsis orchid plant sp. But when the ferns and moss growing in the forest is taken continuously for use as a medium to grow, it is feared the balance of the ecosystem will be disturbed.

Wood shavings or pieces of wood less suitable for orchids because the media has aeration and good drainage, but the power to save water is not good, and poor elements of N. Weathering processes are slow, because the wood contains compounds that are difficult decomposed as cellulose, lignin, and Hemicellulose.

Media teak wood shavings are a good growing medium for growing orchids Aranthera James Stories. Charcoal fragments are not decayed quickly, not easily overgrown with fungi and bacteria, but difficult to tie the water and nutrient poor. But good enough charcoal to the media orchids.

The use of new media (repotting) performed are as follows:
When planted in pots (containers) are too dense or more buds.
Medium long been destroyed, resulting in acidic medium, could be a source of disease.
Watering

Orchid plants are actively growing, require more water than is already flowering. The frequency and amount of water spray applied to plants depends on the type of orchid and the small size of plants, and planting environmental conditions. For example, orchids are Vanda sp., Arachnis sp., And Renanthera sp., Monopodial type of orchid that grows in direct sunlight, so the need watering more than twice a day, especially during the dry season.
Fertilizing

Like other plants, orchids always need food to sustain life. Orchid plant needs for nutrients with other plants, orchids only require a long time to show symptoms of deficiency, binding very slow growth of orchids.

In the cultivation of orchids, their habitats are not quite able to provide the elements needed by plants for growth. To overcome this, the plants were given fertilizer usually either organic or inorganic. Commonly used fertilizer compound fertilizer containing the macro and micro elements.

The quality and quantity of fertilizer can adjust the balance of vegetative and generative growth of plants. At the vegetative growth phase for young plants giving NPK fertilizer ratio is 30:10:10, the vegetative growth phase for a medium-sized plant of NPK fertilizer ratio is the provision of 10:10:10. While the generative growth phase is to stimulate flowering, provision of fertilizer NPK ratio is 10:30:30.

If done fertilization to potted the only fertilizer that dissolves in water and direct contact with the tip of the roots to be taken by the orchid plant and the remainder will remain in the pot. Fertilization in the afternoon showed a good response to growth in orchid Dendrobium sp.

2 comments:

first aid on April 27, 2011 at 3:23 AM

nice article. thanks for sharing

Anonymous on March 21, 2013 at 4:31 AM

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